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White Pages 

Please take some time to read through these white pages that were written by expert team members at PES Testing. 

Blue Etch Anodizing of Titanium 

Blue Etch Anodizing is an inspection procedure used for the detection of defects in titanium and titanium alloys, such as segregation, inclusions, alpha case, and porosity, among others. This test can be performed on a variety of product forms, including discs, bars, near-net-shape forgings, and wire. Blue Etch Anodizing is most commonly used for products intended for Aerospace, Medical, and Energy Applications. 

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Drop Weight Testing

Drop Weight Testing was developed by the Naval Research Laboratory in 1952 and is still used by naval, nuclear, freight, and railcar industries to determine the Nil-Ductility Transition (NDT) Temperature for a variety of ferritic steels. 

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Coating Weight Measurement

Coatings are applied to substrate materials for many reasons, including corrosion/environmental protection, wear resistance, chemical resistance, enhanced electrical conductivity, improved adhesion, aesthetics, and other purposes. The amount of coating applied to a product over a given surface area can be determined by calculating the coating weight. The total coating layer thickness used varies based on the application. Relative applications of coatings are most commonly found in Automotive, Appliance, Aerospace, and Medical Industries. 

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Effective Case Depth Measurement 

Case-hardening occurs when the surface layer hardness of a ferrous metal is increased, forming what is known as a "case" layer over the remaining, unaffected "core" material. For components involved in industries such as Automation and Defense, case hardening is desirable. It serves as a protective shell that is both stronger and more wear-resistant than that of the original metal, prolonging part lifespan and preventing operation malfunctions during service. 

Case Depth Measurements are conducted to verify the extent of case hardening, using Microindentation Hardness Testing and/or Optical Microscopy Measurements. Total case depth is the total distance that Carbon, Nitrogen, or both have diffused inward for the surface of the part. 

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Transverse Rupture Strength 

Transverse Rupture Strength (TRS) Testing is commonly performed on cemented carbides - a combination of fine particles mixed into a composite with a binder metal. They are sintered together by the application of pressure and heat which fuses the metal and other particles with higher melting points. The TRS is the determination of brittleness and toughness which is quantified by the maximum tension stress sustained prior to failure. 

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Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) 

Low Cycle Fatigue Testing (LCF) is typically performed in the plastic region (i.e. at or beyond yielding) of a material that experiences cyclic load or strain and/or temperature fluctuations in service. LCF is conducted primarily for the Aerospace, Oil & Gas, and Automotive Industries on Carbon Steels, Stainless Steels, Nickel, and Aluminum Alloys. One of the most common applications to be evaluated by LCF Testing is rotating components in aircraft engines and pumps. 

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High Cycle Fatigue Testing (HCF) 

Typically, High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) Testing is performed in the elastic region (i.e. before yielding) of a material. HCF TEsting is useful for simulating specific scenarios and investigating real-world failures. This type of testing can be performed on many different types of conventional and additively manufactured materials. Test Specimen Preparation is critical for Fatigue Testing. Testing is conducted in an axial testing frame with the capability of applying both tensile and compressive forces. 

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Corrosion Testing

Corrosion is the process of degrading materials (e.g., metal) chemically, and can occur naturally or in controlled acidic/basic environments. Two common types of corrosion that are examined are intergranular corrosion (IGC) and pitting/crevice corrosion. 

IGC focuses on grain boundaries or the areas next to grain boundaries in the microstructures of metals and alloys. 

Ferric Chloride Solution is commonly used to determine pitting resistance in ferrous alloys. 

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